Moscow ia the capital of Russia. It became the capital under Ivan Kalita in 1328 and held its position untill 1713 when Peter the Great made St. Petersburg the capital. After the Great October Socialist Revolution the capital was again transferred to Moscow in 1918. 

Moscow is the most populos city  on the continent of Europe and the seventh largest city proper in the world.According to the preliminary results of the 2010 Census, the population of Moscow was 11,514,300. 

Moscow is the seat of power for the Russian Federation. The entire city of Moscow is headed by one mayor. The city of Moscow is divided into 10 administrative okrugs and 123 districts.All administrative okrugs and districts have their own coats of arms and flags as well as the head officials.Moscow is one of largest city economies in Europe. It has the lowest unemployment rate of all federal subjects of Russia.

The city is situated on the banks of the Moskva River which flows through much of central Russia. Moscow is actually located in a basin of the Volga, Oka, Klyazma, and Moscow rivers. 

Moscow has a humid continental climate. The summers tend to be warm and humid and the winters are long, cold, and hard.  The coldest month is February (its average temperature is -6,7 °C) but during cold waves the temperature can drop to -20 °C. The lowest ever recorded was -42.2 °C in January 1940.The hottest month is July (its average temperature is +19,2 °C), but during heat waves daytime high temperatures often top 30 °C. The highest temperature ever recorded was 38.2 °C at VVC and 39.0 °C  in the center of Moscow on 29 July 2010 during the unusual 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat wave. Most precipitation in Moscow falls as rain, but in winter months almost all precipitation falls as snow, forming firm snow cover. The last wet snow precipitation may be in the beginning of May, and it may restart at the end of September.Snow cover (averaging 3-5 months per year) is formed at the end of November and melts in mid-March, but in recent years snow cover has lasted shorter than usual.

The average annual temperature in Moscow is 5.8 °C.

The average wind speed is not high. In the city it is near 2 metres per second; in open places and airports it may top 6 metres per second.

Moscow is a very important tourist center.Some of the better known attractions include the city's UNESCO World Heritage Site, Moscow Kremlin and Red Square,which was built between the 14th and 17th centuries. Moscow is also a very important traffic centre. There are five primary commercial airports, nine rail terminals,two passenger terminals and three freight ports serving Moscow.Local transport includes the Moscow Metro. The Moscow Metro is one of the world's busiest metro systems, serving more than nine million passengers daily. There are 180 state universities and 210 private universities. 


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